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The French presidential election in 2017 marks a profound change in the European political situation and the approach; generalized crisis in political dominance of ruling classes and political elites over social fabric.

 

The French general election, is a crystallized reflection of the ravaging political crisis within the ruling classes and consequently its political-ideological elites in France and in rest of the (Western) Europe. : The “new” fraction is building a round of the so-called pro globalist, a “global state-governing structure”, of entire planet competing with “anti globalist”, a semi nationalist approach to deal with political economy, are in an internal deadly class struggle to defeat, and if possible to kill each other; all available means are allowed to finish off internal class competitions.

From a socioeconomic view, neither fraction is able to resolve the problems related to the growth and profitability measurements in economics, that has disestablished the “world order”, as a whole, since emergence of the financial crisis in the main center of capitalism, the US in 2008.

The non-disappearing impacts of crisis in economics, attached to the system’s inner core operation, i.e., the tendency of capital accumulation (production of surplus vale, transformation of surplus vale to capital…) towards a moment of nullification, before it returns back to full working state; massive destruction of already accumulated capital in the forms of constant and variable capital. Capitalism with total imperialist mode of operation has transformed the world to a unified production plant and distributing-consuming network, from Gaza in Palestine to Detroit in America carries capitalism’s transparent global logo and, at the same time, signs of general breakdown; crisis in every domain, including the planet Earth.

Implication in this context is clear, sooner or later, the invisible force of the labor law of value has to synthesize the labor market, and so the labor cost on global level; The labor theory of value-with a globalized content-will conquer eventually capitalism’s final calculations in bookkeeping rules. This is the real point of attraction, politico calculus and differential equations for “neoliberalism-globalist vision of paving the way for a total free capital circulation on global scale, in parallel with the socio economic and political forced globalized procedure of labor power: How to align two main different living standards for proletarian class that exists between “North” and “South” (in main China, India… as reference point).

Imperialist tensions

Other imperialist network led by Russia and China, for the benefit and interest of their own state-capital composition are not sharing the vision of a “global state/governance” at the moment; Russia and China as a main imperialist force/network against this US and Europe led globalization of political-economic structures are well aware of imperialist aims of “western” globalization; total takeover of all markets including the capital-labor markets.

The political-ideological organized break, between “West” and “East”, in terms of imperialist state powers mirrored on broken reflexes in political spectrum, in right to left of capitalist establishment; The question of imperialist tension in Europe summarized, by the US/EU, in connectivity with Russia, personified in Putin. French state-capital politics that is highly sensitive to the perspective of the EU and to the “Russian threat” is divided in best caste, if not broken.

However, for French state-capital hierarchical composition with all its political formations, its vital to save its own skin in an age of global capital, with forced collective imperialist implications, and the EU structure already in a state of organizational crisis. French ruling class/elites, who in the bottom of its heart still believes that “Europe is France and Germany; the rest are just the trimmings”.(Charles de Gaulle) and have already established an EU structure in Brussels, which became “unexpectedly” dominated by the rival German state-capital structure, it is a great dilemma how to approach issues related to the EU.

On the context of this genuinely imperialist view on managing real problems, i.e. migrant issues, tensions with the Russian imperialist network…, in EU, ruling and political classes from the right to left (leftism) fragmented and divided on one of the key issues; how to dismantle the remaining of the so-called “welfare state, social safety net” after decades of post-Cold War era. A fraction of majority in the state-capital establishment (right to left), politically identifies itself with political –ideological articulation, forwarded by the globalist imperialism; that is forced changes in worldwide configuration of labor market differences, problematic of existing boarders from “ancient” nation-state era…

Right to left of state-capital structure and workers not as a class

Demolishing the rest of remainings in ”welfare state” (semi- safety network in social benefits, … for the proletariat in general and rest of the population that is related to labor-capital antagonist relation) is aimed to leveling labor cost differences between geographically and politically separate labor markets, derived from the present imperialist network allocations; China, Russia, India… on one pole and, in main, the old “West” capitalist center. “Globalism” overt or covert is an ideological umbrella for organizing all political forces of world state- capital compositions from the old political conservative formations to the left; from the large social Democrat parties to part of traditional Anarchism.

In confronting this politico-legal and ideological world-wide machinery, part of the old traditional -“far-right”- political formations (Le Pen in France, …) which is by, virtue not capable or willing to join this large block of globalist vision of a world dominance, through “united imperialist strategy”. However, the united attack on workers living conditions and on labor market (aligning production costs between “North” and “South”) from a globalist approach to deal with the crisis in capitalism (question on profitability, economic output, Imperialist maneuvers …) is naturally causing resistance and disturbances among populations in general and in hearts and minds of working people; The French spring 2016, with mass street demonstrations nationwide was just a glimpse of what proletariat’s class struggle could offer in confronting the systemic crisis.

This is the entry point for the “far right” of capital to get in touch with “masses” and more particularly with workers who are aware of the consequences, in ideological war against class interests and rights of working population: The social cost of massive migration waves and deterioration of living conditions, i.e. negativity of massive allocation of people due to imperialist wars, regional destructions, endless regional crisis, on of massive immigration is planned to be paid by working class in general; weakening or disappearance of social safety net, continued sinking living standard…

In the context of energizing systemic right to left in political articulations, the reintroduction of ideological instrument of racism in the western political spectrum, with Trump’s presidential issue in the US, meant to cannibalize the political power struggle, internally within ruling classes. This is to make the globalist fraction/vision to succeed in galvanizing processes such as labor markets alignment, by crashing or passivizing all resistance from the workers and population, and at the same time defeating or isolating the “far-right”, with ideological reproduction of racism/anti racism, fascism/anti-fascism, human rights, either for or against immigrants…

In this context, an ideological commodity and societal-political artifact was crafted by French (and EU) capital-state establishment; Emmanuel Macron. Thus, the traditional election box entertainments charged with inter class imposed of ideological power struggles, which is in essence aiming at squeezing workers for voting; alienation related to self/class-deception. However, for workers and majority of population, it does not really matter, which fraction, Le pen or Macron (racism/anti-racism, Fascism/anti-fascism, “far-right”/”social-liberal”…) wins this duel. But the western state-capital structures, as an imperialist network (French, EU, part of US…) have decided to pull out Macron from the ballot box; for strengthening the “western” imperialist network, and taking over the global market shares from rival Russian/Chinese imperialist network. This means, the proletariat shall stand for the cheap labor power and, if necessary, blood for maintenance of the existing capitalist world order, which is not going to resolve the crisis, caused by the capitalist production system in setting up the ecological and social reproduction.

Hamid Moradei
May 6, 2017

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The polarization in the US following the Trump electoral victory is transformed to the ex-western bloc geography. The ruling classes’ inter class struggle reflects an underlying class struggle — “uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight ” (Marx) — which is moving in a real-time speed and surely globally.

The crisis in political economics and the political elites

The ramifications of the financial crisis and the banking collapse of 2008 will be felt for decades to come. The political economics of capitalist world has been suffering in terms of economic performances and profitability measurements since the general slow down trend with economic growth chart, in the early 1970s. Capitalism is an economic system that is inherently crisis-prone. The drive toward crisis is central to capitalism and to its continuity and expansionism or to its revolutionary end/change (Marxist argumentation and perspective).

Almost half a century of continues crisis forced the capitalist system reshape and reorganize itself on all sociopolitical and economic levels; Series of world wide historic changes from collapse of the Bretton Woods monetary agreement to the collapse of the Eastern bloc, i.e. the end of Cold Cold War period, … meant to keep the cycle of capital accumulation as a basic system requirement for commodity production and business continuity.

Thus, the economic crisis of 2008 in the center of capitalism, American state-capital composition, was continuity of what started in the capitalist world economy decades ago. However, it just manifested real historic decline in American state-capital dominance status in a real-time synergy. The deepening of crisis took forms in social upheavals like occupy street that brought to the front question of mass movement after decades of social silence. The occupy street movement, despite its lack of any radical or revolutionary perspective, proved the power of struggle and mass resistance against shuck waves of the state-run crisis management.

American state-capital structure needed to reconsider its imperialist mode of operational action in the context of densifying crisis, in parallel with internal sociopolitical challenges, such Occupy street, unemployment issues, black life matters. The US’s uncertainty for open militarist engagments made the NATO centric network’s operations unable to lead the imperialist expeditions in the Middle East. The imperialist rivalry between the micro (Shia-Islamist states of Iran/Hezbollah… against Sunni-Islamist states of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Turkey..) and the macro (Russia/China against the US and NATO members) powers launched a generalized war scenario for the region; Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria…

The gang of Trump to manage political crisis

In the context of declining worldwide tendency of American state-capital dominance statues, the presidential election as a classical tool – for the ruling classes in the time of peace- to deceive and defeat ideologically – politically masses/population on sociopolitical filed, but also force ruling class factions and political elites’ rivalry to reorganize themselves for the coming mandate period, did not work out well, as was expected by the main ideological-political tendency; the left faction (macro-micro leftist organizations) on capitalism’s political apparatus and major part of “deep stat structures” . In the course of election, the ruling class factions – in main Democratic and Republican parties – and political elites sank into the deeper political-ideological crisis that American state-capital structures has ever experienced and managed since the end of second world war.

A flaw in mechanism of systematized election box functioned in favor of a candidate who was not suppose to be elected by votes; Donald Trump. The flaw was that “one man one vote” election system apparently could override the direction and assumption designed in advance for outcome of the election procedure in a period political crisis; “one man one vote” election box mechanism without direct and brutal state machinery engagement in leading the “expected result “ functions not properly. The ruling class and political elite that was already divided on dealing the question of the US’s political economics and its declining place in capitalist center, dived into deeper political crisis.

Thus, the power play of presidential election came up with wrong result, from capitalist systemic point of view, when Trump was pulled out of the magician hat in the presidential election in November 2016. On the surface, Trump’s line of argument in line with UK Brexit revolved around anti “globalization”. The pro old-structures and strategy, the gang of Hillary/Obama (Democrats and parts of opposition including Republicans) side of this political convulsion on global level (EU, Canada…) did not accept this defeat in the power play so lightly: The neoliberalism, globalist perspective and a dream of a global state/governance was and is an ideal approach from parts of ruling classes; globalizing the ruling classes. The defender of the old status quo by sticking to “anti Trump” articulation carrying a kind of ideological witch hunt that is mainly organized and financed by the old political configuration rotating around an axis of the left–right political spectrum matrix in the social structures.

“New” strategy

The dynamic of capitalist order –crisis- forces American state-capital structures through, the visible gang of Trump, to move towards a new strategic line for “ American” politics locally and internationally. Trump and his gang in the White House modify the deep state political algorithms internally on issues like emigration crisis, labor cost (Health care reform) …, and internationally on Issues like keeping or not keeping NATO structure, the US’s imperialist position in the middle East, tactical approach to rival Russia while galvanizing tensions with main enemy and big creditor China.

However, what is occurring in the US is happening in the rest of the ex western block: political crisis within the political elites and ruling classes breaks the old political configurations that were setup after the second world war; left – right political formations are not sufficient tolls any more to mange the inter political power struggles of the dominant classes for control of the society as a whole and working masses.

The shock wave of political crisis within the ruling classes and political structures in the capitalist west transformed to the society and population. Sharing its own political crisis with masses and dividing the entire social fabric into two camps, at the moment, for and against Trump (racism/anti-racism, fascism /antifascism, Islamization/antiIslamization…) designed, first if possible to remove Trump and his gang and replace him with Clinton’s gang and secondly resist the new political and military strategy. The coarse power of masses applied to achieve dirty political tasks of aggressive factional warfare among the capitalist gangs.

Trump’s political circus on Muslim ban was in line with re-configuration of the new military strategy with Islamist Iran, whose mini imperialist position took great leaps forward after the US’s direct maneuver in the Middle East started by invasion of Iraq in 2003. The anti Trump section of capitalist order in the West (EU…) organized total state run propaganda setup ( media, Public services…) to manipulate masses for a political-ideological war against new American strategy that is basically targeting Islamist Iran’s military/imperialist statues in the region.

Against factional struggles in ruling classes/elites

In the context of unprecedented political crisis in the US, the machinery of capitalist political spectrum from right to left with left fraction energized by Trump’s gang taking command line with new strategical initiative in the Withe House. The inter class antagonism on the managerial approach to the US’s political crisis moved from mass medial world to the streets for pushing for Trump’s resignation or changing his political agenda, i.g., the new American dream; “Making America great again.” The left faction of capitalist unleashed its anger and battle on Trump and right-wing Republicans by mobilizing masses on the streets. The majority of population organized or mobilized by left(ist) opposition (Democrats, traditional and new age leftists, Liberals , some “Anarchist groups”…) against Trump’s gang on the streets, are actually choosing to side with their own class enemy; masters.

The protesting masses on the streets or participating in different action points with the leftist agenda against the right-wing Trump belong to the proletarian masses from a socioeconomic-all point of view. Confused through mass ideological warfare of the capitalist right and left, the proletarian community’s real social being and political existence is basically determined by the antagonistic dynamism between capital and labor relationship: The community or class that constructs labor-source and surplus-labor in social reproduction process organized trough the generic capitalist mode of production.

At the moment, a proletarian perspective as the only rational perspective against this historic crisis within the dominant class’ hierarchy is completely absent. Contrary to any proletarian perspective, workers, students, unemployed… are trapped in the political field of ruling class’ inter-class power struggles. The political and ideological elites succeed to transfer its own “identity” crisis into the population including working people; the identity politic, as ideological mechanism, is cutting/dividing the proletarian masses/community to pieces; races/gender/color- line/ethnicity/religion…

The political convulsion around an axis of “anti Trump/ for Trump” thought within the ruling classes and its political elites, aims to divide the social fabric on the dummy question of democratic rules. The generic attempt is how deep American community and ex western block societies can be disrupted on both sides of Atlantic; Fascism/populism. But there is a more dangerous ideological thought behind this “new” line: Integration of proletarian population to two political camp. For or against Trump; factional fights within the ruling classes.

In this context, any dangerous idea about white, black, brown… division and identification of the proletarian community facilitates only ruling class’s dominant social place. Ironically, “Obama administration’s ” master fully transformed Martin Luther King, Jr.” I Have A Dream” to a nightmare in racialization of American society, and influenced the rest of the western world and solidified an academic laboratory simulated artifact of “identity politics”, back from 1990s to a global political standard.

Proletarian perspective

It seems in harsh reality of crisis/capitalism management, the racialization (racism/antiracism) of entire political environment and its globalization operates as a fallback procedure for the political elites – particularly in ex western bloc- to deal with its own politia in an age of irresolvable socio-economic difficulties: The lack of any new political-ideological approach to contain the existing order. Re-alienation through dichotomy of group identity ( race, ethnicity, gender, religion…) and class line identity ( derived from Marxian labor-capital antagonism) artificially recompose social stratification in terms unifying antagonistic social classes or groups. A unification that is not antagonistic to structural hierarchy in social interaction that is built on “master” and “salve” relationship in a capital dominant commodity production environment.

In their ideological set-up, American political elites – Republicans, Democrats, Liberals… – chose to strengthen major components of classical alienation of workers and population in separation from the political power, i.g., the state. The period of processing election for society and workers, proletariat, intensifies political state’s alienation procedures revolving around touching the state power by systematized ballot box, in order to abstain completely from political structures for a period of time.

Populations’ complete political alienation in a moment of ideological and political performance for election results is established in materially confronting an already separated political power; the state. Thus, proletariat’s (simple and complex labor population) voting engagement for right or left of capitalist system, in this case Trump re-alienate them and the circle of separation from class identity completed: The galvanized political alienation in a ballot box atmosphere, paves the way for unconscious and false empowerment euphoria among participant masses.

Political crisis: considering the context of urgency, the ideological machinery centered around racism/anti-racism (fascism/antifascism) is a set-up throughout the old “western block” to politically disarm workers and population against up coming sociopolitical and economic failures. It seems that the only existing and reliable political configuration – right-left political labor division – at the time of political crisis shatters the class unity of ruling classes and political elites to pieces, who is straining his eyes for a survival perspective.

The generic Population compromising the labor source and surplus labor – marxian proletarian class – ”black”, “white”, “brown”, “yellow”… – can’t find, under no circumstances, its class line interest and perspectives with ideological-political identities created through sections of ruling classes. Against the manipulative and destructive identity politics or race/religion ideologies – racism/antiracism/Islamism -, the class line identity remains the only historic and solid protection for working masses, the proletariat, in a time of war or peace, and in any other operational mode of capitalist system.

Hamid Moradei
2017-02-08

Remembering Spartacus

Posted: April 10, 2014 in Uncategorized

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Spartacus: “a real representative of the proletariat of ancient times.” (1)

Abstract

Spartacus the slave, a short paragraph in the history books, who had to be forgotten and marginalized in the socio-political history of Roman Empire. Spartacus as a symbol of sacrifice and freedom was employed by Ronald Reagan, who symbolized the US Imperialism, at the end of the Cold War era in 1980s. (2) Spartacus the legend and symbol of the war of the oppressed against the oppressor…

Introduction

When Spartacus with 74 slave-gladiator break free from a gladiator school near Capua in Companio, south of Rome, in 73 B.C the first historically noted class resistance and struggle was born. Spartacus, or Sparadokos as his true Theracian name (3), who was sold into slavery and trained at the gladiatorial school in Capua, north of Naples, initiated an extraordinary socio-political phenomena by escaping with other slaves and taking refuge on the rocky heights of Mount Vesuvius: thousands of slaves escaped from the Companio and joined him and his slave band.

The slave insurrection came to be known as the Third Servile War. With an army of runaway slaves and free poor farmers, which has been estimated to have reached 100,000 men, Spartacus and rebellious slaves defeated one Roman army after another and brought the Republic to its knees.

After the large and often undisciplined slave army of Spartacus defeated a series of Imperial Roman’s invincible legions, he and his escaped slaves army moved down the Italian peninsula, at the end of 72 BC only to be hunted down and defeated by the well trained, heavily equipped and massive armies led by politician and general Marcus Licinius Crassus, the richest man in Rome, in 71 BC.

Roman Empire‘s class society

In the first century BC, the slavery based class society of Roman Republic with its militarized society of Rome was actually moving towards a period of political turmoil that would end with the rule of the Caesars. The historic evolution of prehistoric Rome to a city-state society of class society, from a classless society of the Stone Age periods, led to the emergence of civilization epoch and rise of the class divided societies of slavery. The ancient Egypt from Mesopotamian area and classical Greece and Republican Rome, from Mediterranean part, are historical evidence of the move towards slavery based class societies. The slavery mode of production in which slave labor permeated all sectors of the economy and played a central role in economic output outside the sphere of family labor – were the core of the Roman Empire. In late fourth-century BC, Rome created a new dichotomy of (fully) slave, leaving slavery as the only viable form of readily exploitable labor for those whose assets required them consistently to employ others to work. In this perspective, class relations take center stage: the remarkable creation of slavery labor based society. (4)

The establishment of slavery mode of production, historically occurring set of social relations through which labor is deployed, as a production force, to deal with the socio-economic and political demands of the society. The process of Roman Empire building that was connected to a series of warfare directed for conquest of the Mediterranean ended by the mid-second century BC. The elimination of its competitor for power in Mediterranean provided the tremendous external access to wealth: the imperial rent. And, internally the large scale agricultural production demands, due to development and enlargement of Roman city-state, inform of both demographic and institutional developments, provoked the emergence of a new economic system based on organizing and use of the slave labor. The small numbers of Romans and Italians rose to a new ruling and dominant class through the concentration of the imperial rent and large amounts of land as their own. The dominant class of land owner needed labor power to work on their properties. The slavery labor power logistically and economically was provided after Roman Empire’s successful military expedition in the Mediterranean and other areas.

Slave-class

On this context, the influx of imperial rents, commercial revenue and raise of a large scale agricultural production set only facilitated the division of labor in society and accumulation of class inequality in assets. This in turn was materialized and galvanized through the access to slaves that was increased dramatically during the last two centuries BC, ultimately because of successful Imperial warfare. Ancient Rome created the largest slave society in history, through containing several million slaves for twenty or more generations, anywhere from 100 to 200 million individual slaves. (3, 4)

In key areas, slaves were not merely present, but supported what has been termed a „slave mode of production,‟ a mode that rested both on an integrated system of enslavement, slave trade, and slave employment in production, and on “the systematic subjection of slaves to the control of their masters in the process of production and reproduction. (4) Slaves were engaged in an enormous variety of activities, as estate managers, field hands, shepherds, hunters, domestic servants, craftsmen, construction workers, retailers, miners, clerks, teachers, doctors, midwives, wet-nurses, textile workers, potters, and entertainers. In addition to private sector employment, they worked in public administration and served in military support functions. They were owned by private individuals as well as the state, communities, temples, and partnerships. (6)

The rapid expansion of agrarian slavery production rested on the massive enslavement took place, in main, in eastern Mediterranean where the warfare of Roman Empire caused a political chaos and military destruction in the region and the situation was fully used by the main operating slave merchants and suppliers present in this geographical part at the time.

Thus, by the mid second century BC, the Roman Empire developed a historically new agricultural economic system; in the ancient world basically build on the intensive agrarian slavery labor. The center of this slave agriculture was at the heart of the Roman Empire: southern part of Italian peninsula, in the region of  Campania and also on the island of Sicily.

Slave wars 130s-70s BC

The sudden transformation of Italian peninsula to the large scale agrarian slavery economics, through the adaptation of a large number of slaves, introduced preconditions favorable to comprehensive armed resistance and open war of slavery class against the ruling class: slave owners. Southern Italy and Sicily witnessed history’s three major slave class uprising and wars between 130-70 BC. The first war broke out in the mid 130s BC and ended in 132.

The second war erupted in 104 BC and ended four years later. In both wars the large, better trained legionary forces of the Roman army was needed to defeat the slaves and end the war. The third slave war happened to be the last great war of slave class in the heart of Roman Empire, known as Spartacus war. The last slave war differentiated from its previous one:

– The location: it was centered outside the Sicily and centered in southern Italy.

– Another sector of slavery class, Gladiator, not agricultural initiated and directed the uprising and war.

However, the major part of rebellion salves that joined all three uprisings and fought the wars against the slave owners and Roman army were simple agricultural slave laborers. The slave ownership and exploitative nature of slavery class system aggravated constantly the antagonistic relationship of production that existed between the subordinated slave class by the dominant class of slave owners. The slaves normally applied different forms of resistance, e.g. stealing, petty sabotage, running away or murdering the master, as modes of discontent. Wars of slave army engaging the worlds most powerful military of the time was apex of an aggravated class struggle of the slave laborer.

The class struggle of slaves

What signifies the rebellion slaves and the wars of 135-70 BC is the first historical confrontation of main classes in the epoch of civilization and division of society to antagonistic classes with the Roman society as a forerunner. Rise of Roman society to the largest slavery system of the old world, meant a new socially well-developed structure to maintain diametrically opposing classes in the slave society of Roman Empire. The Roman Empire had to create a new state through external warfare, trade and internal consolidation to deal with external and internal treats. Thus, the glorious class war of slave army with magnificent Spartacus and other slaves cloud only be defeated by the world class military state power.

The last glorious class wars of slaves, the same two previous one, in antiquity with Spartacus as its leader became an expression of classical class struggle of subordinated laboring class. The history of a class and its struggle for breaking free from the rules of a class society build upon the relations of production based on, exploitation of man by man. However, historically and materially limitation of the Roman slavery system in general, was reflected in all slave wars and perspective on challenging the slavery Roman Empire. Spartacus and the slave army were running away from Rome in searching for a lost freedom or free world. They could not understand that the era of free man prior to the discovery of civilization and class society, by man had been lost as lost paradise. With no revolutionary perspective to defeat the slave owner class and change the slavery system of production in Roman Empire, slave war of Spartacus and his slave army lost the final battle in a courageous and desperate fight against Crassus and his army. Spartacus and his slave army mainly composed of poorly armed and untrained former slave laborers lost the final battle bravely with an outcome almost clear before the last deadly engagement.

“Spartacus was wounded in the thigh with a spear and sank upon his knee, holding his shield in front of him and contending in this way against his assailants until he and the great mass of those with him were surrounded and slain”. (7)

After the battle, the legionaries found and rescued 3,000 Roman prisoners in Spartacus’ camp – all of whom were unharmed. This civilized treatment of the Roman prisoners contrasts starkly with the fate meted out to Spartacus’ followers. Crassus had 6,000 slaves crucified along the Appian Way between Capua and Rome – a distance of about 200 kilometers.

Spartacusian legacy

Spartacus and his agrarian slaves in arm cannot speak to us, but they have created a legendary story about history’s first noted class struggle, in the form of slave war that can still inspire its modern class equivalent, i.e. the proletarian class: globalized wage Despite the fact that the slave wars did not alter the socio-political situation of slavery mode of production in the ancient Rome, they created a historical struggle path for proletariat’s class consciousness:

“The mode of production of material life conditions the social, political and intellectual life process in general. It is not the consciousness of men that determine their being, but on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness.” (8)

To historically generalize what Marx defined as the role of the proletarian class struggle in Franc in mid-18th century, for materializing memories of the slave class society, slave wars and Spartacusian story of Roman Empire and antiquity:

“On the other hand, proletarian revolutions…, constantly criticize themselves, constantly interrupt themselves in their own course, return to the apparently accomplished, in order to begin anew; they deride with cruel thoroughness the half-measures, weaknesses, and paltriness of their first attempts, seem to throw down their opponents only so the latter may draw new strength from the earth and rise before them again more gigantic than ever, recoil constantly from the indefinite colossalness of their own goals until a situation is created which makes all turning back impossible…” (9)

In line with slave’s wars of antiquity, perhaps we need to materialise memories of the Paris commune of 1871 and the Russian revolution of 1917…

Hamid Moradei 2014-04-08

Footnotes:

1) Marx and Engels, Collected Works, Volume 41, p. 265

2) Speaking to the British Parliament in 1982

3) Slavery and Society at Rome: Bradley, 1994, chapters 11-22

4) Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology by Moses I. Finley  (1998), 298

5) Hunt, A. and Wickham, G. 1994: 2005-260.

6) Bradley 1994: 57-80)

7) The Roman historian, Appian, Civil Wars: C, I:116-120

8) A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy

9) Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire